Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Historically, partial nephrectomy has been the gold standard of treatment.
With advanced imaging, RCC is now often detected in earlier stages, allowing for the utilization of nephron-sparing therapeutic percutaneous ablative techniques. Cryoablation, a technique that eventually results in tissue necrosis, has become the standard nephron-sparing option for RCC.
Percutaneous cryoablation is performed by inserting a cryoprobe into the malignant tissue. The probe rapidly removes heat from the tissue by means of Joule-Thompson effect, in which rapid expansion of a gas (Argon) results in a change of temperature. The modifiable parameters of cryoablation include cooling rate, target temperature, time at target temperature, and thawing rate.
The number of cryoablation probes inserted into a lesion can also be varied, depending on the size and shape of a lesion. This technique is utilized for other conditions as well, including prostate, lung, bone, and breast cancers.
This report explores the use of cryoablation for management of hematuria, a common RCC complication, rather than primary treatment of an RCC tumor itself.